Wednesday, November 26
with Mark Wayne at 8:40 AM:
The AMERICAN HERITAGE ® DICTIONARY ANNOUNCES 2014 UPDATE
The editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries, published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, has announced additions and revisions to the 5th edition of the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. During the past year, they have revised thousands of entries and have added over 500 new words and senses. The website ahdictionary.com and the iPhone and Android apps include this new material.
What’s new in 2014?
Hundreds of new words and senses. Here are a few:
New and delicious food terms
· banh mi: A sandwich of Vietnamese origin made with various meats, pickled or fresh vegetables, and usually sriracha or another spicy condiment, served in a baguette that is traditionally made with both wheat flour and rice flour.
· halloumi: A chewy, white, brined Cypriot cheese, traditionally made from sheep’s and goat’s milk, that is often served grilled or fried.
· mochi: Cooked sticky rice pounded into a paste, formed into balls or cakes, and used to make sweets and savory dishes in Japanese cuisine; or, a cake formed from this paste.
· saison: A medium-bodied ale of Belgian origin, often having a slightly fruity flavor and a cloudy appearance.
General interest terms
· clickbait: Provocative or sensationalistic headline text that entices people to click on a link to an article, used as a publishing tactic to increase webpage views and associated ad revenue.
· cosplay: The act or practice of dressing in costume, often homemade, to resemble or portray a fictional character, especially from science fiction, fantasy, manga, or anime. (Also used as a verb.)
· pregame: A party or other social gathering that occurs before an athletic competition. (Also used as a slang verb: To drink alcoholic beverages before an event or social gathering.)
· rescue breathing: A technique used to resuscitate a person who has stopped breathing, in which the rescuer forces air into the victim’s lungs at intervals of several seconds, usually by exhaling into the victim’s mouth or nose or into a mask fitted over the victim’s mouth.
· slopestyle: An athletic event in which skiers or snowboarders descend a series of ramps and other obstacles which they use in the execution of jumps and other maneuvers.
Science and technology terms
· dashcam: A video camera mounted inside a windshield and pointed outward, as to monitor the actions of police officers or to record accidents in order to determine insurance liability.
· exomoon: A moon that orbits an extrasolar planet.
· microbiome: The complete genetic content of all the microorganisms that typically inhabit a particular environment, especially a site on or in the body, such as the skin or the gastrointestinal tract.
· petcoke: (Short for petroleum coke.) Coke that is produced as a byproduct of petroleum refining, used as an industrial fuel and in the manufacture of iron and steel, anodes for aluminum smelters, and other products.
· social anxiety disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by persistent, intense anxiety or fear of social settings in which one might become the focus of attention. People with this disorder fear that they will be negatively evaluated by others, either for showing signs of anxiety or for other reasons.
New Usage Panelists
· Joan Bresnan, Sadie Dernham Patek Professor Emerita in Humanities and Senior Researcher at the Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University
· Robert Lane Greene, Author; Correspondent and language columnist, The Economist
· Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Victor S. Thomas Professor of History and of African and African American Studies, Harvard University
· Megan Marshall, Biographer; recipient, Pulitzer Prize
· Anna Deavere Smith, Playwright; actress; professor; MacArthur Fellow; recipient, National Endowment for the Humanities Medal
· Deborah Tannen, University Professor and Professor of Linguistics, Georgetown University
New and Revised Usage Notes. Here are two examples:
casualty: (new) In military usage, a casualty is a serviceperson who has been killed, injured, captured, or in some other way rendered unable to serve. When used in nonmilitary situations, such as newspaper reports about accidents, the word casualty is usually used to mean a person who is either killed or injured. Sometimes, however, people use casualties to refer only to individuals who have died, not to those who have been injured. This usage is often considered an error. In our 2013 survey, 60 percent of the Usage Panel disapproved of a sentence where casualties was used to mean “fatalities” only: Officials have reported 21 casualties from yesterday’s earthquake. In addition to those fatalities, 79 people were seriously injured.
harass: (revision) The pronunciation of harass with stress on the first syllable (rhyming roughly with Paris) is the older, traditional pronunciation. The pronunciation with stress on the second syllable (rhyming roughly with surpass) is a newer pronunciation that first occurred in American English. Its use has steadily increased since the mid-1900s. In our 1987 survey, 50 percent of the Usage Panel preferred the pronunciation with stress on the first syllable, and 50 percent preferred stress on the second syllable. Fourteen years later, in our 2001 survey, preference for stress on the first syllable dropped to 30 percent while preference for stress on the second syllable rose to 70 percent. The results from our 2013 survey suggest that this trend away from the traditional pronunciation has continued: only 10 percent preferred the stress on the first syllable, whereas 90 percent preferred the pronunciation with the stress on the second syllable. In fact, in 2013, 35 percent of the Panel considered the pronunciation with the stress on the first syllable to be unacceptable. The original pronunciation has almost completely given way in only a few decades, at least in the United States.
Expanded etymologies. Here are two examples:
Spanish, pl. of cojón, testicle, from Vulgar Latin *cōleō, cōleōn-, from Latin cōleī, testicles.
Spanish, plural of cojón, testicle, from Vulgar Latin *cōleō, *cōleōn-, from Latin cōleī, testicles, perhaps a colloquial variant of *culleī and akin to culleus, leather sack, probably
a borrowing, from an unknown Indo-European language of the Mediterranean and akin to Greek koluthron, ripe fig (perhaps originally “sacklike thing”), koluthroi, testicles, and koleon, sheath.
German Zirkon, from Arabic siriqun, from Greek surikon, from Persian āzargūn, fire color : āzar, fire (from Middle Persian ādur, from Old Persian *ātar, āç-, in Āçiyādiya, fire-worship month) + -gūn, color (from Middle Persian; akin to Avestan gaonəm, hair, complexion (second sense unattested)).
From German Zirkon (originally in obsolete scientific German Zirkonerde, zirconium oxide, coined by German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743–1817) who first isolated it from a jacinth), probably partly from Arabic zarqūn, minium, bright red (from Persian zargūn, gold-colored, from Middle Persian zargōn, golden : zarr, zar-, golden, from Old Iranian *zarna- + gōn, color, from Old Iranian *gaona-; akin to Sanskrit guṇaḥ, string, thread, quality) and partly from European terms for ‘jacinth’ such as French jargon (from Old French jargonce, ultimately from Latin hyacinthus).
Purchase the print edition of the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language from your favorite online or brick-and-mortar bookstore, check out ahdictionary.com, or go to your iTunes or Android app store and purchase the app!
About the Editors
The Editors of the American Heritage® Dictionaries are professional lexicographers who familiarize themselves with the vocabulary in specific subject areas, research and analyze new developments and usage, and work with expert consultants to ensure that the content of their publications is as accurate and as up-to-date as possible.
Steve Kleinedler is executive editor of the reference group at Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, publishers of American Heritage Dictionary and Webster’s New World reference works. He joined the editorial staff of the American Heritage Dictionary in 1997 and worked as a freelance editor for several reference titles for National Textbook Company between 1989 and 1997. Steve earned a BA in linguistics from Northwestern University and attended graduate school at the University of Chicago for linguistics.